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  1. Introduction to polymers
  2. Polymerization | Definition of Polymerization by Merriam-Webster
  3. polymerization
  4. chapter and author info

Systems with slow exchange do not follow this perfect distribution but PDI's in a well conducted ATRP are defined by the following equation, where k p is the rate of propagation, k deact the rate of deactivation, [RX] the concentration of initiator and dormant chain ends and [Cu II L n X] is the concentration of the higher oxidation state transition metal complex, the deactivator.

A polymerization that satisfies the prerequisites listed above is expected to form a final polymer with a polydispersity less than 1.

Introduction to polymers

Wel-controlled segmented copolymers with higher PDI can self-organize to materials with interesting nanostructured morphologies. This is a consequence of negligible irreversible chain transfer and termination. Hence, all the chains retain their active centers after the full consumption of the monomer. Propagation resumes upon introduction of additional monomer. This unique feature enables the preparation of block copolymers by sequential monomer addition. The significance of controlled polymerization as a synthetic tool is widely recognized and polymers having uniform predictable chain length are readily available.

Controlled polymerization provides the best opportunity to control the bulk properties of a target material through control of the multitude of possible variations in composition, functionality and topology now attainable at a molecular level. Further, as noted at the foot of the figure showing what CRP can do, we highlight that mechanistic transformations permit the use of macroinitiators or macromonomers prepared by other polymerization procedures in many CRP processes which allows incorporation of a spectrum of functionalities and polymer segments prepared by any other controlled polymerization process into segments of copolymers prepared by CRP.

Indeed a plethora of previously unattainable polymeric materials have been prepared. Numerous examples of gradient, 5 block 6 and graft 7 copolymers have been reported, as well as polymers with complex architectures, including comb shaped polymer brushes, 8 stars, 9 and hyperbranched 10 copolymers. Progress has been made in the synthesis of each of these materials and the procedures are discussed in other sections of the web page.

Polimery Warsaw, Pol. Chiefari, J.

Supplementary files

Living free-radical polymerization by reversible addition—fragmentation chain transfer the RAFT process. Macromolecules 31 , — Shi, Y. Jewett, J. Rapid Cu-free click chemistry with readily synthesized biarylazacyclooctynones. Baskin, J. Copper-free click chemistry for dynamic in vivo imaging. Rowe-Konopacki, M. Synthesis of surface initiated diblock copolymer brushes from flat silicon substrates utilizing the RAFT polymerization technique.

Macromolecules 40 , — Zammarelli, N. Langmuir 29 , — Chen, Y. A biomolecule-compatible visible-light-induced azide reduction from a DNA-encoded reaction-discovery system. Sen, M. Green polymer chemistry: telechelic poly ethylene glycol s via enzymatic catalysis.

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Polymerization | Definition of Polymerization by Merriam-Webster

Lesage, G. Cell wall assembly in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cabib, E. The yeast cell wall and septum as paradigms of cell growth and morphogenesis. Lamport, D. Cell wall metabolism. Plant Physiol. O'Malley, M. High-level expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae enables isolation and spectroscopic characterization of functional human adenosine A2a receptor. Kim, B. Hydrogen-bonded multilayer of pH-responsive polymeric micelles with tannic acid for surface drug delivery.

Kim, K. TAPE: A medical adhesive inspired by a ubiquitous compound in plants. Kozlovskaya, V. Hydrogen-bonded LbL shells for living cell surface engineering. Soft Matter 7 , Selden, N. Chemically programmed cell adhesion with membrane-anchored oligonucleotides. Download references. The content of the information does not necessarily reflect the position or the policy of the Government, and no official endorsement should be inferred. We gratefully acknowledge W. Gutekunst, C. Haitjema, R.

  1. polymerization.
  2. Principles of Condensation Polymerization.
  3. Step-Growth Polymerization.
  4. The Stone of the Philosophers: An Alchemical Handbook.
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Behrens, J. Smith, L.

Dassau and M. Raven for experimental assistance and helpful discussions. All authors analysed the data and co-wrote the manuscript. Correspondence to H. Tom Soh or Craig J.


To obtain permission to re-use content from this article visit RightsLink. Angewandte Chemie Advanced Materials Faraday Discussions Advanced Theory and Simulations There are many examples of polymers that occur naturally, for example, starch, cellulose and proteins. Over the last 70 years, synthetic polymers have been invented, often mimicking nature and they are now manufactured in millions of tonnes a year and are one of the most essential materials we use. Many are used as fibres. Others are moulded into required shapes and when they are used in this way, they are often termed plastics.

There are several ways in which polymers can be characterised: a how they are made, by addition or by condensation b whether they are homopolymers or heteropolymers co-polymers c whether they are themoplastics, thermosets, elastomers or fibres d by their steric structure. In addition polymerization , the polymer has the same empirical formula as the monomer but a higher molecular mass Table 1. An example is the polymerization of chloroethene vinyl chloride to form poly chloroethene , PVC:. In condensation polymerization , polymerization of one or more monomers is accompanied by the elimination of small molecules such as water or ammonia Table 2.

For example, in producing polyamide 6,6, two monomers are used. Another type of condensation polymer is said to be formed if the polymer chain contains rather than appended to the chain a functional group such as an ester, amide or urethane Table 2. Another way of characterising polymers is to divide them into homopolymers and heteropolymers. Many of the well known polymers such as poly chloroethene are produced from a single monomer and so are referred to as homopolymers Table 1 :.

A heteropolymer, or as they are more commonly known, a co-polymer , is produced from two or more monomers. There are several types of co-polymer. One type is produced when two or more monomers are mixed and polymerized together. Depending on the reactivities of the monomers, they may form polymers with different arrangements of the monomer units Figure 2.

chapter and author info

First, phenylethene is polymerized. Buta-1,3-diene is then added and adds on to both the reactive ends of the poly phenylethene molecules to form SBS:. Another type of co-polymer is known as a graft co-polymer. An example is ABS. A is Acrylonitrile, the trivial name for propenonitrile. The backbone of the polymer is formed from phenylethene styrene and buta-1,3-diene. Propenonitrile acrylonitrile is added to the system and forms a grafted side chain onto the backbone.

The nitrile adds to the double bond on the butadiene unit:. Co-polymers are very useful as they have the properties of the constituent polymers and thus can be produced for specific purposes. For example, poly phenylethene polystyrene is brittle but when it is co-polymerized with buta-1,3-diene, the latter gives the polymer resilience and strength.

On the right, the medical vials are made of a random co-polymer of ethene and propene which give a flexible and clear material. Below, the covering of the cable is a block co-polymer of the two alkenes, giving a very tough material with rubber-like properties. By kind permission of Total. Thermomplastics consist of individual molecules with no covalent bonding between them but held together by intermolecular bonding. The polymers become soft on warming and can be moulded. They can be repeatedly warmed, softened and remoulded. A list of examples is given in Table 1. Thermosets , on the other hand, have many covalent bonds between the chains, leading to a three-dimensional structure, which can be regarded as a single molecule.

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  • They can be moulded by heat and pressure, but once moulded they cannot be remoulded. The most important examples include the plastics made from methanal formaldehyde. Elastomers are amorphous solids which, as the name suggests, are elastic Table 3.